Association between maternal mid-gestation vitamin D status and neonatal abdominal adiposity.

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Lower vitamin D status has been associated with adiposity in children through adults. However, the evidence of the impact of maternal vitamin-D status during pregnancy on offspring's adiposity is mixed. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between maternal vitamin-D [25(OH)D] status at mid-gestation and neonatalabdominal adipose tissue (AAT) compartments, particularly the deep subcutaneous adipose tissue linked with metabolic risk.


Participants (N = 292) were Asian mother-neonate pairs from the mother-offspring cohort, Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes. Neonates born at ≥34 weeks gestation with birth weight ≥2000 g had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2-weeks post-delivery. Maternal plasma glucose using an oral glucose tolerance test and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured. 25(OH)D status was categorized into inadequate (≤75.0 nmol/L) and sufficient (>75.0 nmol/L) groups. Neonatal AAT was classified into superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue compartments.


Inverse linear correlations were observed between maternal 25(OH)D and both sSAT (r = -0.190, P = 0.001) and dSAT (r = -0.206, P < 0.001). Each 1 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with reductions in sSAT (β = -0.14 (95% CI: -0.24, -0.04) ml, P = 0.006) and dSAT (β = -0.04 (-0.06, -0.01) ml, P = 0.006). Compared to neonates of mothers with 25(OH)D sufficiency, neonates with maternal 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher sSAT (7.3 (2.1, 12.4) ml, P = 0.006), and dSAT (2.0 (0.6, 3.4) ml, P = 0.005) volumes, despite similar birth weight. In the subset of mothers without gestational diabetes, neonatal dSAT was also greater (1.7 (0.3, 3.1) ml, P = 0.019) in neonates with maternal 25(OH)-inadequacy. The associations with sSAT and dSAT persisted even after accounting for maternalglycemia (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose).


Neonates of Asian mothers with mid-gestation 25(OH)D inadequacy have a higher abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue volume, especially dSAT (which is metabolically similar to visceral adipose tissue in adults), even after accounting for maternal glucose levels in pregnancy.

Int J Obes (Lond)
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Association between maternal mid-gestation vitamin D status and neonatal abdominal adiposity.
Tint MT, Chong MF, Aris IM, Godfrey KM, Quah PL, Kapur J, Saw SM, Gluckman PD, Rajadurai VS, Yap F, Kramer MS, Chong YS, Henry CJ, Fortier MV, Lee YS