Scientific evidence on the long-term impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring's myocardial relaxation is scarce. Studies have linked GDM with transient ventricular hypertrophy in newborns resulting in diastolic dysfunction, but long-term assessment is lacking. The main objective of this study was to evaluate myocardial relaxation in 3-year-old children in relation to the degree of insulin resistance of their mother during pregnancy.
We prospectively assessed myocardial relaxation by echocardiography imaging on 106 children at 3 years of age. Subjects were divided into 3 groups [GDM, insulin resistance (IR) and normoglycemic (CTRL)], based on their mother's 75g-OGTT and HOMA-IR results at second trimester screening. We collected information on children adiposity and body size, maternal characteristics and maternal and cord blood measurement of C-peptide and insulin.
The study population comprised 29 children from GDM mothers, 36 children from IR mothers and 41 CTRL children. Compared to the CTRL group, we found that a higher proportion of children in the IR group and the GDM group met the criteria for impaired myocardial relaxation, but this did not reach statistical significance (odds ratio adjusted for heart rate and body surface area of 1.4 [0.2-9.5] and 3.5 [0.6-20.6], respectively).
We did not detect an increased risk of impaired myocardial relaxation at three years of age in children exposed in-utero to IR and GDM, compared to children from normoglycemic mothers.