Innovative mobile health technologies (mHealth) may facilitate self-management of blood glucose. This study evaluates uptake, use, and predictors of uptake and long-term use of a diabetes mHealth intervention, which comprises an FDA-approved mobile glucometer and nurse coaching, in a real-world setting.
n = 4438 commercially-insured adults with diabetes were recruited from 2014 to 2015 via an opt-in, phone-based process. In this post-only study, we obtained data on recruitment, glucometer use, demographics, and insurance and employer characteristics. We calculated percent uptake and reasons for unsuccessful recruitment. We used logistic regression to model predictors of uptake and survival analysis to examine duration of testing and predictors of discontinuation.
Of the recruited members, 556 (12.5%) signed up for the mHealth program and 324 (7.3%) began testing. Of those who did not sign up, the majority (70.6%) were unable to be reached by phone. Male (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.03) and Spanish-speaking (OR = 8.34, 95% CI: 5.40, 12.88) members were more likely to start testing. Two-thirds (66.2%) of those who started testing had a first test value that indicated hyperglycemia; 97% tested more than once and the median time between first and last test was 407 days. Older age was the only significant predictor of long-term use.
Although uptake of the mHealth program was low, most members who started testing had initial glucose values that indicated a need for better glucose management and the majority of patients engaged with the program for over a year. Male and Spanish-speaking members were more likely to initiate the program.