Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis commonly receive intravenous iron to treat anemia along with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. While studies of intravenous iron have demonstrated efficacy in raising hemoglobin, the quantity of administered intravenous iron has raised concerns about iron overload leading to long-term toxicities. The goal of this review is to understand recent trends in intravenous iron use, potential mechanisms of iron toxicity, and to evaluate the available evidence in the literature for potential long-term cardiovascular and infectious complications. We include findings from the recently published landmark clinical trial of intravenous iron for patients receiving hemodialysis to contextualize treatment recommendations.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis
Long-Term Risks of Intravenous Iron in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients.