As the prevalence of diabetes mellitus increases in the population, the exposure to antidiabetic drugs (ADDs) during pregnancies is expected to grow, as has been seen over the last decade. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADD use during pregnancy among women in the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database (MSDD) who delivered a liveborn infant.
We identified qualifying livebirth pregnancies among women aged 10 to 54 years in the MSDD from 2001 to 2013. ADD use was estimated using outpatient pharmacy dispensing claims and days-supplied among three cohorts: all livebirth pregnancies, pregnancies among women with pre-existing diabetes, and pregnancies among women without prior ADD use.
Among the 1.9 million pregnancies in the MSDD that resulted in a livebirth from 2001 to 2013, 4.4% were exposed to an ADD. Of the 15,606 pregnancies (0.8%) with pre-existing diabetes, 92.8% were also exposed during the pregnancy period. The most commonly used product in these pregnancies was insulin (75.6% of pregnancies). In contrast, in pregnancies of women without prior ADD use, the most commonly used products were glyburide and insulin, and most of these users were diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
Patterns of ADD use during pregnancy described here, along with changes in disease incidence and management, highlight the importance of continuing surveillance of ADD utilization patterns and examining the safety and effectiveness of these products in pregnancy.