Ceftazidime-avibactam has in vitro activity against some carbapenem-resistant gram-negative infections (GNIs), and therefore may be a useful alternative to more toxic antibiotics such as colistin. Understanding ceftazidime-avibactam uptake and usage patterns would inform hospital formularies, stewardship, and antibiotic development.
A retrospective cohort study assessed inpatient encounters in the Vizient database. Ceftazidime-avibactam and colistin administrations were categorized into presumed empiric (3 consecutive days of therapy or less with qualifying exclusions) versus targeted therapy (≥4 consecutive days of therapy) for presumed carbapenem-resistant GNIs. Quarterly percentage change (QPC) using modified Poisson regression and relative change in frequency of targeted ceftazidime-avibactam to colistin encounters was calculated. Factors associated with preferentially receiving targeted ceftazidime-avibactam versus colistin were identified using generalized estimating equations.
Between 2015 quarter (q) 1 and 2017q4, ceftazidime-avibactam was administered 21 215 times across 1901 encounters. Inpatient prescriptions for ceftazidime-avibactam increased from 0.44/10 000 hospitalizations in 2015q1 to 7.7/10 000 in 2017q4 (QPC, +11%; 95% CI, 10-13%; P < .01), while conversely colistin prescriptions decreased quarterly by 5% (95% CI, 4-6%; P < .01). Ceftazidime-avibactam therapy was categorized as empiric 25% of the time, targeted 65% of the time, and indeterminate 10% of the time. Patients with chronic kidney disease were twice as likely to receive targeted ceftazidime-avibactam versus colistin (RR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.82-2.25), whereas those on dialysis were less likely to receive ceftazidime-avibactam than colistin (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, .61-.83).
Since approval in 2015, ceftazidime-avibactam use has grown for presumed carbapenem-resistant GNIs, while colistin has correspondingly declined. Renal function drove the choice between ceftazidime-avibactam and colistin as targeted therapy.