Attention to precision medicine in type 2 diabetes (T2D) has provided two favored approaches to subclassifying affected individuals and parsing heterogeneity apparent in this condition: phenotype-based and genotype-based. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) shares phenotypic characteristics with T2D. However, unlike T2D, GDM emerges in the setting of profound pregnancy-related physiologic changes in glucose metabolism. T2D and GDM also share common genetic architecture, but there are likely to be unique genetic influences on pregnancy glycemic regulation that contribute to GDM. In this Perspective, we describe efforts to decipher heterogeneity in T2D and detail how we and others are applying approaches developed for T2D to the study of heterogeneity in GDM. Emerging results reveal the potential of phenotype- and genotype-based subclassification of GDM to deliver the promise of precision medicine to the obstetric population.
Defining Heterogeneity Among Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.