Fluid therapy is an important component of intensive care management, however, optimal fluid management is unknown. The relationship between fluid balance and ventilator-associated events has not been well established. This study investigated the dose-response relationship between fluid balance and ventilator-associated events.
Nested case-control study.
The study was based on a well-established, research-oriented registry of healthcare-associated infections at ICUs of West China Hospital system (Chengdu, China).
A total of 1,528 ventilator-associated event cases with 3,038 matched controls, who consistently underwent mechanical ventilation for at least 4 days from April 1, 2015, to December 31, 2018, were included.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
We calculated cumulative fluid balance within 4 days prior to ventilator-associated event occurrence. A weighted Cox proportional hazards model with restricted cubic splines was used to evaluate the dose-response relationship. A nonlinear relationship between fluid balance and all three tiers of ventilator-associated events, patients with fluid balance between -1 and 0 L had the lowest risk (p < 0.05 for nonlinear test). The risk of ventilator-associated event was significantly higher in patients with positive fluid balance (4 d cumulative fluid balance: 1 L: 1.19; 3 L: 1.92; 5 L: 2.58; 7 L: 3.24), but not in those with negative fluid balance (-5 L: 1.34; -3 L: 1.14; -1 L: 0.98).
There was nonlinear relationship between fluid balance and all three tiers of ventilator-associated event, with an fluid balance between -1 and 0 L corresponding to the lowest risk. Positive but not negative fluid balance increased the risk of ventilator-associated events, with higher positive fluid balance more likely to lead to ventilator-associated events.