Greenspace may benefit sleep by enhancing physical activity, reducing stress or air pollution exposure. Studies on greenspace and children's sleep are limited, and most use satellite-derived measures that do not capture ground-level exposures that may be important for sleep. We examined associations of street view imagery (SVI)-based greenspace with sleep in Project Viva, a Massachusetts pre-birth cohort. We used deep learning algorithms to derive novel metrics of greenspace (e.g., %trees, %grass) from SVI within 250m of participant residential addresses during 2007-2010 (mid-childhood, mean age 7.9 years) and 2012-2016 (early adolescence, 13.2y) (N = 533). In early adolescence, participants completed >5 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep duration, efficiency, and time awake after sleep onset (WASO) were derived from actigraph data. We used linear regression to examine cross-sectional and prospective associations of mid-childhood and early adolescence greenspace exposure with early adolescence sleep, adjusting for confounders. We compared associations with satellite-based greenspace (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI). In unadjusted models, mid-childhood SVI-based total greenspace and %trees (per interquartile range) were associated with longer sleep duration at early adolescence (9.4 min/day; 95%CI:3.2,15.7; 8.1; 95%CI:1.7,14.6 respectively). However, in fully adjusted models, only the association between %grass at mid-childhood and WASO was observed (4.1; 95%CI:0.2,7.9). No associations were observed between greenspace and sleep efficiency, nor in cross-sectional early adolescence models. The association between greenspace and sleep differed by racial and socioeconomic subgroups. For example, among Black participants, higher NDVI was associated with better sleep, in neighborhoods with low socio-economic status (SES), higher %grass was associated with worse sleep, and in neighborhoods with high SES, higher total greenspace and %grass were associated with better sleep time. SVI metrics may have the potential to identify specific features of greenspace that affect sleep.
Street-view greenspace exposure and objective sleep characteristics among children.