Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with cardiometabolic disease in adults. In children, this association is unclear. We evaluated the effect of early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) for treatment of OSAS on blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. We also analyzed whether these parameters at baseline and changes at follow-up correlated with polysomnographic indices.
Data collected at baseline and 7-mo follow-up were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial, the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT).
Clinical referral setting from multiple centers.
There were 464 children, ages 5 to 9.9 y with OSAS without severe hypoxemia.
Randomization to eAT or Watchful Waiting with Supportive Care (WWSC).
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS
There was no significant change of cardiometabolic parameters over the 7-mo interval in the eAT group compared to WWSC group. However, overnight heart rate was incrementally higher in association with baseline OSAS severity (average heart rate increase of 3 beats per minute [bpm] for apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 2 versus 10; [standard error = 0.60]). Each 5-unit improvement in AHI and 5 mmHg improvement in peak end-tidal CO2 were estimated to reduce heart rate by 1 and 1.5 bpm, respectively. An increase in N3 sleep also was associated with small reductions in systolic blood pressure percentile.
There is little variation in standard cardiometabolic parameters in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but without severe hypoxemia at baseline or after intervention. Of all measures, overnight heart rate emerged as the most sensitive parameter of pediatric OSAS severity.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION