Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

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BACKGROUND

Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring.

METHODS

For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence.

RESULTS

While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]<1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93).

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

Investigators
Abbreviation
Nutr J
Publication Date
2013-03-21
Volume
12
Page Numbers
34
Pubmed ID
23514444
Medium
Electronic
Full Title
Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.
Authors
Huber JC, Brender JD, Zheng Q, Sharkey JR, Vuong AM, Shinde MU, Griesenbeck JS, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Canfield MA, Romitti PA, Weyer PJ,