This study aimed to examine the associations of two obesity-related metabolite patterns with changes in metabolic biomarkers during early adolescence.
Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) and androgen hormone patterns with changes in glycemia (fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), lipid profile, and blood pressure during ∼5 years of follow-up among 213 children aged 6 to 10 years at baseline. Covariates included baseline age, pubertal status, biomarker level, and BMI percentile, and age at follow-up. Interactions with sex and baseline BMI percentile were also considered.
The median age at baseline was 7.7 years; 48.8% were boys. In adjusted models, each 1 unit of the BCAA pattern corresponded with a 4.82 (95% CI: 0.92 to 8.71) mg/dL decrease in fasting glucose in boys. In girls, the BCAA pattern was associated with an increase in triglycerides (4.17 [0.03 to 8.32] mg/dL). The androgen pattern was associated with decreased leptin (-2.35 [-4.34 to -0.35] ng/dL) and increased C-reactive protein (0.28 [0.03 to 0.54] mg/dL) in girls. These relationships did not differ by baseline BMI percentile.
The BCAA and androgen hormone metabolite patterns are related to changes in metabolic parameters in a sex-specific manner during early adolescence.