Purpose of review
Electronic health records (EHRs) contain valuable data for identifying health outcomes, but these data also present numerous challenges when creating computable phenotyping algorithms. Machine learning methods could help with some of these challenges. In this review, we discuss four common scenarios that researchers may find helpful for thinking critically about when and for what tasks machine learning may be used to identify health outcomes from EHR data.
We first consider the conditions in which machine learning may be especially useful with respect to two dimensions of a health outcome: 1) the characteristics of its diagnostic criteria, and 2) the format in which its diagnostic data are usually stored within EHR systems. In the first dimension, we propose that for health outcomes with diagnostic criteria involving many clinical factors, vague definitions, or subjective interpretations, machine learning may be useful for modeling the complex diagnostic decision-making process from a vector of clinical inputs to identify individuals with the health outcome. In the second dimension, we propose that for health outcomes where diagnostic information is largely stored in unstructured formats such as free text or images, machine learning may be useful for extracting and structuring this information as part of a natural language processing system or an image recognition task. We then consider these two dimensions jointly to define four common scenarios of health outcomes. For each scenario, we discuss the potential uses for machine learning - first assuming accurate and complete EHR data and then relaxing these assumptions to accommodate the limitations of real-world EHR systems. We illustrate these four scenarios using concrete examples and describe how recent studies have used machine learning to identify these health outcomes from EHR data.
Machine learning has great potential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of health outcome identification from EHR systems, especially under certain conditions. To promote the use of machine learning in EHR-based phenotyping tasks, future work should prioritize efforts to increase the transportability of machine learning algorithms for use in multi-site settings.