The American Academy of Pediatrics currently recommends weight for length (WFL) for assessment of weight status in children younger than 2 years but body mass index (BMI) for children older than 2 years. However, the clinical implications of using WFL vs BMI in children younger than 2 years as an indicator of future health outcomes remains understudied.
To compare associations of overweight based on WFL vs BMI in children younger than 2 years with cardiometabolic outcomes during early adolescence.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This prospective study of birth cohorts in the United States (Project Viva) and Belarus (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial [PROBIT]) performed from June 1, 1996, to November 31, 2002, included 13 666 children younger than 2 years.
Overweight defined as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WFL in the 95th percentile or greater, World Health Organization (WHO) WFL in the 97.7th percentile or greater, or WHO BMI in the 97.7th percentile or greater at 6, 12, 18, or 24 months of age.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Primary outcomes were fat mass index, insulin resistance, metabolic risk score, and obesity during early adolescence. Secondary outcomes were height and BMI z scores, sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure during early adolescence.
The study included 919 children (mean [SD] age, 12.9 [0.9] years; 460 [50.1%] male; and 598 [65.1%] white) from Project Viva and 12 747 children (mean [SD] age, 11.5 [0.5] years; 6204 [48.7%] male; and 12 747 [100%] white) from PROBIT. During 6 to 24 months of age, in Project Viva, 206 children (22.4%) were overweight at any of the 4 times points according to the CDC WFL, 160 (17.4%) according to WHO WFL, and 161 (17.5%) according to WHO BMI cut points. In PROBIT, 3715 children (29.1%) were overweight at any of the 4 time points according to the CDC WFL, 3069 (24.1%) according to WHO WFL, and 3125 (24.5%) according to WHO BMI cut points. After maternal and child characteristics were adjusted for, being ever overweight (vs never overweight) during 6 to 24 months of age was associated with higher likelihood of adverse cardiometabolic risk markers during early adolescence, but associations did not differ substantially across WFL and BMI cut points in either cohort. For example, for fat mass index in Project Viva, β = 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.4) for the CDC WFL, β = 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6-1.6) for WHO WFL, and β = 1.4 (95% CI, 0.9-1.9) for WHO BMI. For PROBIT, β = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.6) for the CDC WFL, β = 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7) for WHO WFL, and β = 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.6) for WHO BMI. Neither growth metric in infancy was superior over the others based on F statistics (Project Viva: 17.1-17.8; PROBIT: 87.1-88.7). Findings were similar for insulin resistance, metabolic risk score, obesity, and secondary outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance
Choice of WFL vs BMI to define overweight during the first 2 years of life may not greatly affect the association with cardiometabolic outcomes during early adolescence. The findings appear to have important implications for investigators seeking to use BMI as a growth metric for epidemiologic research and for practitioners monitoring the weight status of children younger than 2 years.