To update current estimates of non-device-associated urinary tract infection (ND-UTI) rates and their frequency relative to catheter-associated UTIs (CA-UTIs) and to identify risk factors for ND-UTIs.
Academic teaching hospital.
All adult hospitalizations between 2013 and 2017 were included. UTIs (device and non-device associated) were captured through comprehensive, hospital-wide active surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definitions and methodology.
From 2013 to 2017 there were 163,386 hospitalizations (97,485 unique patients) and 1,273 UTIs (715 ND-UTIs and 558 CA-UTIs). The rate of ND-UTIs remained stable, decreasing slightly from 6.14 to 5.57 ND-UTIs per 10,000 hospitalization days during the study period (P = .15). However, the proportion of UTIs that were non-device related increased from 52% to 72% (P < .0001). Female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-2.50) and increasing age were associated with increased ND-UTI risk. Additionally, the following conditions were associated with increased risk: peptic ulcer disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.04-4.86), immunosuppression (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15-1.91), trauma admissions (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), total parenteral nutrition (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.35-2.94) and opioid use (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.10-2.32). Urinary retention (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.96-2.07), suprapubic catheterization (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 0.88-5.91), and nephrostomy tubes (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 0.83-4.93) may also increase risk, but estimates were imprecise.
Greater than 70% of UTIs are now non-device associated. Current targeted surveillance practices should be reconsidered in light of this changing landscape. We identified several modifiable risk factors for ND-UTIs, and future research should explore the impact of prevention strategies that target these factors.