While genome-wide association studies have identified genes involved in differential treatment responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma, few studies have evaluated the potential effects of age in this context. A significant proportion of asthmatics experience exacerbations (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) during ICS treatment. We evaluated the interaction of genetic variation and age on ICS response (measured by the occurrence of exacerbations) through a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) of 1,321 adult and child asthmatic patients of European ancestry. We identified 107 genome-wide suggestive (P<10-05) age-by-genotype interactions, two of which also met genome-wide significance (P<5x10-08) (rs34631960 [OR 2.3±1.6-3.3] in thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing protein 4 (THSD4) and rs2328386 [OR 0.5±0.3-0.7] in human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2 (HIVEP2)) by joint analysis of GWIS results from discovery and replication populations. In addition to THSD4 and HIVEP2, age-by-genotype interactions also prioritized genes previously identified as asthma candidate genes, including DPP10, HDAC9, TBXAS1, FBXL7, and GSDMB/ORMDL3, as pharmacogenomic loci as well. This study is the first to link these genes to a pharmacogenetic trait for asthma.
Genome-wide interaction study reveals age-dependent determinants of responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in individuals with asthma.