We conducted a scoping review to map the extent, range and nature of the scientific research literature on the reproductive health (RH) of transgender and gender diverse assigned female at birth and assigned male at birth persons. A research librarian conducted literature searches in Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, Gender Studies Database, Gender Watch, and Web of Science Core Collection. The results were limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2000 and 2018 involving human participants, written in English, pertaining to RH, and including disaggregated data for transgender and gender diverse people. A total of 2197 unique citations with abstracts were identified and entered into Covidence. Two independent screeners performed a title and abstract review and selected 75 records for full-text review. The two screeners independently extracted data from 37 eligible articles, which were reviewed, collated, summarised, and analysed using a numerical summary and thematic analysis approach. The existing scientific research literature was limited in terms of RH topics, geographic locations, study designs, sampling and analytical strategies, and populations studied. Research is needed that: focuses on the full range of RH issues; includes transgender and gender diverse people from the Global South and understudied and multiply marginalised subpopulations; is guided by intersectionality; and uses intervention, implementation science, and community-based participatory research approaches. Further, programmes, practices, and policies that address the multilevel barriers to RH among transgender and gender diverse people addressed in the existing scientific literature are warranted.