Infertility has been associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. It is not clear whether infertility and underlying causes of infertility or the use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) therapies are responsible for the observed associations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of history of infertility with pregnancy outcomes and identify whether the associations, if present, differed by subgroups defined by the use of MAR.
Prospective study of 2201 pregnant women from the Boston-area Project Viva cohort. The exposure was history of infertility based on self-reported time to pregnancy ≥12 mo (or ≥ 6 mo if ≥35 y) or use of MAR; a diagnosis of infertility or claims for infertility treatments from medical records. The outcomes included: gestational glucose tolerance (gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, isolated hyperglycemia vs. normoglycemia), hypertensive disorders (gestational hypertension/preeclampsia vs. normotension), gestational weight gain (inadequate/excessive vs. adequate), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure, birthweight-for-gestational age z-score (tertile 2 and 3 vs. 1), preterm birth (<37 vs. ≥37 weeks at delivery), and birth outcome (pregnancy loss vs. live birth). We performed linear and logistic/multinomial regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, pre-pregnancy BMI, and prenatal smoking.
Mean (SD) age was 32.0 (5.0) years, and 18.8% of women had history of infertility, 32.6% of whom used MAR. SBP across pregnancy was 0.72 mmHg higher in women with vs. without infertility (95% CI 0.02, 1.42). The associations were stronger among women who used MAR (β 1.32 mmHg, 95% CI 0.21, 2.44), especially among those who used gonadotropins or gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] agonists (β 1.91 mmHg, 95% CI 0.48, 3.35). Other outcomes were not associated with history of infertility.
A history of infertility was associated with higher SBP during pregnancy, with stronger associations among those who used gonadotropins or GnRH agonists. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine their clinical implications.