Lower cord blood leptin levels have been associated with lower and higher adiposity in childhood and associations seem to differ according to the child's age, methods of adiposity assessment and sex. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific associations of cord blood leptinemia with childhood adiposity at birth, 3 and 5 years of age. We measured cord blood leptin using Luminex immunoassays in 520 offspring from the Gen3G cohort. We tested associations between cord blood leptin and body mass index (BMI) z-score, skinfolds thicknesses (SFT), and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, adjusted for confounders. At birth, girls had almost twice as much leptin in cord blood as boys (15.5 [8.9; 25.6] vs. 8.6 [4.9; 15.0] ng/mL; < 0.0001) as well as significantly greater adiposity. Lower levels of cord blood leptin were associated with higher sum of SFT (β = -0.05 ± 0.02; = 0.03) and higher BMI z-score (β= -0.22 ± 0.08; = 0.01) in 3-year-old boys only. We did not observe these associations at age 5, or in girls. Our results suggest a sexual dimorphism in the programming of leptin sensitivity and childhood adiposity, but further observational and functional studies are needed to better understand the role of leptin in early life.