Some phthalates are still widely used in food packaging, toys, and personal care products, and links to adverse health have motivated substitution with replacement chemicals. Few studies have examined patterns and predictors of phthalate replacement biomarkers in children.
To examine associations of sociodemographic, dietary, and urine collection characteristics with urinary concentrations of biomarkers of select phthalates and their replacements in mid-childhood.
We studied 830 children ages 6-10 years in 2007-2010 in a Boston-area cohort. We quantified urinary metabolites and summed their concentrations to calculate biomarkers of the concentrations of ten parent phthalates/replacements. We used linear regression to examine mutually adjusted associations of each predictor with each phthalate biomarker. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) biomarker detectability.
Predictor characteristics explained 25-48% of urinary biomarker variability. Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP) biomarker was higher in females (18.7% [95% CI: 0.7, 39.9]), children who consumed more meat and dairy, and samples collected from later years. DINCH biomarker was more detectable in females (odds ratio [OR] 2.1 [95% CI: 1.5, 3.0]) and samples from later years.
Populations of children with increased urinary concentrations of phthalate and replacement biomarkers can be targeted for future study of sources of exposure, and identifying dietary predictors of biomarkers will directly guide future interventions.
Our study uses data from a large cohort that is one of the first to measure DINCH, DEHTP, and metabolites of di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate. Additionally, we evaluate predictors during mid-childhood when biomarkers might be highest. As the use of replacement phthalates increases, our study is one of the first to examine biomarker patterns and predictors among children.