Dysregulated transplacental lipid transfer and fetal-placental lipid metabolism affect birthweight, as does maternal hyperglycemia. As the mechanisms are unclear, we aimed to identify the lipids in umbilical cord plasma that were most associated with birthweight. Seventy-five Chinese women with singleton pregnancies recruited into the GUSTO mother-offspring cohort were selected from across the glycemic range based on a mid-gestation 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, excluding pre-existing diabetes. Cord plasma samples collected at term delivery were analyzed using targeted liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 404 lipid species across 17 lipid classes. The birthweights were standardized for sex and gestational age by local references, and regression analyses were adjusted for the maternal age, BMI, parity, mode of delivery, insulin treatment, and fasting/2 h glucose, with a false discovery-corrected < 0.05 considered significant. Ten lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) and two lysophosphatidylethanolamines were positively associated with the birthweight percentiles, while twenty-four triacylglycerols were negatively associated with the birthweight percentiles. The topmost associated lipid was LPC 20:2 [21.28 (95%CI 12.70, 29.87) percentile increase in the standardized birthweight with each SD-unit increase in log-transformed concentration]. Within these same regression models, maternal glycemia did not significantly associate with the birthweight percentiles. Specific fetal circulating lysophospholipids and triacylglycerols associate with birthweight independently of maternal glycemia, but a causal relationship remains to be established.