Long-term exposure to air pollution, greenness and temperature and survival after a nonfatal myocardial infarction.

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Little is known about the impact of environmental exposures on mortality risk after a myocardial infarction (MI).


The goal of this study was to evaluate associations of long-term temperature, air pollution and greenness exposures with mortality among survivors of an MI.


We used data from the US-based Nurses' Health Study to construct an open cohort of survivors of a nonfatal MI 1990-2017. Participants entered the cohort when they had a nonfatal MI, and were followed until death, loss to follow-up, end of follow-up, or they reached 80 years old, whichever came earliest. We assessed residential 12-month moving average fine particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO), satellite-based annual average greenness (in a circular 1230m buffer), summer average temperature and winter average temperature. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders to assess hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals). We also assessed potential effect modification.


Among 2,262 survivors of a nonfatal MI, we observed 892 deaths during 19,216 person years of follow-up. In single-exposure models, we observed a HR (95%CI) of 1.20 (1.04, 1.37) per 10 ppb NO increase and suggestive positive associations were observed for PM, lower greenness, warmer summer average temperature and colder winter average temperature. In multi-exposure models, associations of summer and winter average temperature remained stable, while associations of NO, PM and greenness attenuated. The strength of some associations was modified by other exposures. For example, associations of greenness (HR = 0.88 (0.78, 0.98) per 0.1) were more pronounced for participants in areas with a lower winter average temperature.


We observed associations of air pollution, greenness and temperature with mortality among MI survivors. Some associations were confounded or modified by other exposures, indicating that it is important to explore the combined impact of environmental exposures.

Environ Pollut
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Long-term exposure to air pollution, greenness and temperature and survival after a nonfatal myocardial infarction.
Klompmaker JO, Laden F, Dominici F, James P, Josey KP, Kaufman J, Nethery RC, Rimm EB, Roscoe C, Wilt G, Yanosky JD, Zanobetti A, Hart JE