Associations of gestational exposure to air pollution with maternal vitamin D levels: a meta-analysis.

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Maternal vitamin D level is an important determinant of pregnancy and child health outcomes. Exposure to air pollution is suspected to increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency, but the evidence is scarce. We investigated the association between air pollution during pregnancy and maternal vitamin D levels.


A total of 15,935 pregnant women from 5 birth cohorts in Europe and U.S were included. Averaged concentrations of nitrogen oxides, fine and coarse particles, and composition of fine particles from conception until vitamin D measurement were estimated at participants' residential addresses using land-use regression or other spatiotemporal models. Cohorts measured vitamin D as 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D3 levels in serum or plasma at early or mid-pregnancy. We defined suboptimal vitamin D levels as levels below 20 ng/mL. We performed logistic regression models for each cohort to estimate the association between air pollution exposure and suboptimal vitamin D levels and pooled cohort-specific estimates in a random-effect meta-analysis. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and month of conception.


We found an association between PM2.5 and higher odds of suboptimal vitamin D levels (i.e., below 20 ng/mL) (odds ratio per 5 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, 1.43 95%CI: 1.02, 1.99). There was no association between other air pollutant exposure and vitamin D levels.


PM2.5 exposure might contribute to suboptimal levels of vitamin D in pregnancy. Reducing air pollution exposure should be a priority because vitamin D deficiency may adversely influence offspring development.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab
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Associations of gestational exposure to air pollution with maternal vitamin D levels: a meta-analysis.
Binter AC, Ghassabian A, Zou R, El Marroun H, Lertxundi A, Switkowski KM, Estarlich M, Rodríguez-Dehli AC, Esplugues A, Vrijkotte T, Sunyer J, Santa-Marina L, Fernández-Somoano A, Polanska K, McEachan RRC, Oken E, Tiemeier H, Guxens M