Epidemiology and management of gestational diabetes.

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Gestational diabetes is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected during pregnancy at glucose concentrations that are less than those of overt diabetes. Around 14% of pregnancies globally are affected by gestational diabetes; its prevalence varies with differences in risk factors and approaches to screening and diagnosis; and it is increasing in parallel with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes direct costs are US$1·6 billion in the USA alone, largely due to complications including hypertensive disorders, preterm delivery, and neonatal metabolic and respiratory consequences. Between 30% and 70% of gestational diabetes is diagnosed in early pregnancy (ie, early gestational diabetes defined by hyperglycaemia before 20 weeks of gestation). Early gestational diabetes is associated with worse pregnancy outcomes compared with women diagnosed with late gestational diabetes (hyperglycaemia from 24 weeks to 28 weeks of gestation). Randomised controlled trials show benefits of treating gestational diabetes from 24 weeks to 28 weeks of gestation. The WHO 2013 recommendations for diagnosing gestational diabetes (one-step 75 gm 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation) are largely based on the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Study, which confirmed the linear association between pregnancy complications and late-pregnancy maternal glycaemia: a phenomenon that has now also been shown in early pregnancy. Recently, the Treatment of Booking Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (TOBOGM) trial showed benefit in diagnosis and treatment of early gestational diabetes for women with risk factors. Given the diabesity epidemic, evidence for gestational diabetes heterogeneity by timing and subtype, and advances in technology, a life course precision medicine approach is urgently needed, using evidence-based prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies.

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Epidemiology and management of gestational diabetes.
Sweeting A, Hannah W, Backman H, Catalano P, Feghali M, Herman WH, Hivert MF, Immanuel J, Meek C, Oppermann ML, Nolan CJ, Ram U, Schmidt MI, Simmons D, Chivese T, Benhalima K