Socioeconomic Disparities and the Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance.

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The increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) infections is a significant global health threat, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. The drivers of AMR are complex and potentially impacted by socioeconomic factors. We investigated the relationships between geographic and socioeconomic factors and AMR.


We collected select patient bacterial culture results from 2015 to 2020 from electronic health records (EHR) of two expansive healthcare systems within the Dallas-Fort Worth, TX (DFW) metropolitan area. Among individuals with EHR records who resided in the four most populus counties in DFW, culture data were aggregated. Case counts for each organism studied were standardized per 1,000 persons per area population. Using residential addresses, the cultures were geocoded and linked to socioeconomic index values. Spatial autocorrelation tests identified geographic clusters of high and low AMR organism prevalence and correlations with established socioeconomic indices.


We found significant clusters of AMR organisms in areas with high levels of deprivation, as measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI). We found a significant spatial autocorrelation between ADI and the prevalence of AMR organisms, particularly for AmpC and MRSA with 14% and 13%, respectively, of the variability in prevalence rates being attributable to their relationship with the ADI values of the neighboring locations.


We found that areas with a high ADI are more likely to have higher rates of AMR organisms. Interventions that improve socioeconomic factors such as poverty, unemployment, decreased access to healthcare, crowding, and sanitation in these areas of high prevalence may reduce the spread of AMR.

Clin Infect Dis
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Full Title
Socioeconomic Disparities and the Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance.
Cooper LN, Beauchamp AM, Ingle TA, Diaz MI, Wakene AD, Katterpalli C, Keller T, Walker C, Blumberg S, Kanjilal S, Chen JH, Radunsky AP, Most ZM, Hanna JJ, Perl TM, Lehmann CU, Medford RJ